La Tutela del segreto industriale e delle informazioni riservate

La Tutela del segreto industriale e delle informazioni riservate

Vi è una serie di informazioni che non possono essere oggetto di un brevetto o che per scelta del loro titolare non ne sono oggetto,  ma che  rappresentano, per chi le detiene, un valore economico e per i concorrenti un indubbio vantaggio, se le potessero conoscere.

Tali informazioni, a dispetto di quanto comunemente si ritiene, sono oggi esplicitamente tutelate dal nuovo codice della proprietà industriale.

L’art. 98 del suddetto codice, infatti, afferma che costituiscono oggetto di tutela “le informazioni aziendali e le esperienze tecnico-industriali, comprese quelle commerciali”.

Tale introduzione all’interno del codice della proprietà industriale tra i diritti c.d. non titolati anche del cosiddetto know how rappresenta un enorme passo avanti rispetto al passato. Il know how, infatti, può adesso essere tutelato alla stessa stregua di un marchio o di un brevetto, beneficiando così non più solo della tutela offerta dalle norme sulla concorrenza sleale.

L’abuso del segreto aziendale non è più, dunque, solamente un semplice fatto lesivo della lealtà della concorrenza ma è la lesione di un diritto, come tale sanzionabile erga omnes.

 Ma cosa si intende per informazioni aziendali ed esperienze tecnico-industriali?

Tra le informazioni tecniche vengono fatte rientrare in generale le informazioni brevettabili –ma non brevettate per scelta del titolare del dritto al brevetto- e quelle non brevettabili in quanto sprovviste dei requisiti per la brevettazione ( ad esempio, molte delle conoscenze richieste per produrre un bene, o per attuare/migliorare un processo produttivo od un prodotto).

Le informazioni aziendali, invece, per loro natura escluse dall’oggetto del brevetto, attengono all’organizzazione dell’impresa e possono avere natura finanziaria (quanto costa produrre quel bene, dove reperire la risorsa a minor prezzo); commerciale (elenco clienti, fornitori, modifiche in relazione alle richieste dei clienti, relazioni, studi interni, tabelle, schede); di marketing (informazioni strategiche che caratterizzano l’azienda rispetto ai concorrenti); o strategica (quando, con che modalità ed a che prezzo conviene concedere licenze per accedere ad un determinato mercato).

Ne discende che, a questa stregua, ben potranno trovare tutela: relazioni, comunicazioni anche interne, studi di settore, disegni, schede tecniche e quant’altro rappresenti un patrimonio di utilità aziendale.

Occorre, tuttavia, precisare che affinché tali informazioni siano proteggibili, è necessario che siano segrete, nel senso che “non siano nel loro insieme, o nella precisa configurazione e combinazione dei loro elementi, generalmente note o facilmente accessibili agli esperti ed agli operatori del settore”; che “abbiano valore economico in quanto segrete”; e che “siano sottoposte, da parte delle persone al cui legittimo controllo sono soggette, a misure adeguate a mantenerle segrete”.

Inoltre, non è necessario che le suddette informazioni siano singolarmente non note e non conosciute: è necessario, invece, che l’insieme organico di dette informazioni sia, in quanto tale, frutto di un’elaborazione propria dell’azienda, con la conseguenza di acquisire così un valore economico aggiuntivo rispetto ai singoli elementi che lo compongono.

Si pensi, ad esempio, ad una complessa strategia per lanciare un prodotto sul mercato: i singoli elementi che a compongono sono senz’altro note agli operatori del settore ma l’insieme può essere stato ideato in modo tale da rappresentare un qualcosa di nuovo ed originale, e come tale un vero e proprio hatù dal punto di vista concorrenziale per l’ideatore.

Il segreto, in altri termini, è, dunque, la leva attraverso cui proteggere i propri valori organizzativi e di avviamento che trovano, per l’appunto, nel segreto stesso il loro punto di forza. Ed ecco perché il know how per essere proteggibile non deve essere accessibile a tutti: se si diffonde si “volgarizza” e perde valore.

L’adozione delle misure più idonee a proteggerlo costituisce perciò il presupposto logico dell’abusività della sottrazione da parte di un terzo: non si abusa, infatti, se non di qualcosa sottoposto a misure per la sua salvaguardia.

Tali misure dovranno essere tanto rivolte verso “l’interno” che verso l’”esterno”, volendo con ciò riferirsi alle precauzioni da adottare tanto nei confronti dei propri dipendenti o collaboratori, quanto nei confronti dei terzi in generale (come ad esempio i fornitori).

 

Avv. Alessandra Fiumara

 

17 Febbraio 2020- Tutti i diritti riservati

144 Comments "La Tutela del segreto industriale e delle informazioni riservate"

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